早期公開 英文要約

Title
An experiment on the moderating effect of attention to interpersonal factors of procedural fairness: Formation of impressions of the Japanese prime minister’s speeches on resuming nuclear power plant operations
Author
Kei-ichiro IMAZAI (Hokkaido University of Education)
Summary
Previous studies have confirmed that the perception of procedural fairness promotes the acceptance of political decisions and that people’s impressions of authority affect such perceptions. On the other hand, it is thought that people do not always consider political problems in detail, often performing cognitive processing by the heuristic of using peripheral information and thereby forming their attitudes. An experiment was conducted on how impressions were formed of the Japanese prime minister’s speeches on the restart of nuclear power plants. Participants were divided according to degree of focus of attention, and analysis was conducted of the relationship among impressions of the prime minister, procedural fairness, and support for the decision. Overall, it was confirmed that evaluation of accountability fostered support for procedural fairness and decisions reached, but the higher the degree of focus, the more pronounced the effect was regarding assessment of accountability in procedural fairness.
Key words
procedural fairness, attention, accountability, central/peripheral route
Title
An examination of the effect of focus groups for Saiban-in system
Author
Ayumu ARAKAWA (Institute of Innovation, Musashino Art University)
Ikuo SUGAWARA (Waseda Law School)
Summary
Focus groups (FGs) led by trial consultants are popular in the USA but not in Japan. Additionally, the effectiveness of this method has not been examined. This study examined the effect of FGs on the Saiban-in system. First, eleven undergraduates participated in FGs, discussing the perception of certain words (e.g., self-defense) and a theme (e.g., how to evaluate a wrongful act when losing self-control because of fear) that were points of dispute in a simulated case. The contents were compared with three law students’ estimation of how undergraduates perceived these topics. Second, a law student wrote a final case argument before and after reading a summary produced by FGs. Third, another set of thirty-one undergraduates participated in one of two conditions (whether based on an FG result or not), read the arguments (sixteen read arguments not based on an FG result; fifteen read arguments based on one), judged the case, reported their confidence in the judgment, and marked the words that affected them. The effect of the FG on the conviction rate was not significant. However, confidence in the not-guilty verdict increased and participants were influenced by the final arguments based on the FG result. This indicates the efficacy of focus groups in writing a final argument mentioned in the deliberation.
Key words
Saiban-in system, jury research, focus group, perspective taking, Law and Psychology
Title
Which of two opinions do you accept? The effect of cognitive resources on the attitude change process under persuasion from two individuals with different opinions
Author
Saki NAKAMURA (Graduate School of Humanities, Kwansei Gakuin University)
Asako MIURA (School for Humanities, Kwansei Gakuin University/Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University)
Summary
This study examines the attitude change process based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) in persuasion among two individuals holding different opinions, as the simplest situation of multiple directions of persuasion by different sources. Participants with restricted or unrestricted cognitive resources were asked their attitudes after reading two different persuasive messages: one was a persuasion from in-group member with weak arguments and the other was from out-group member with strong arguments. Cognitive resources were manipulated with a dual task (Study 1) and time constraints (Study 2) to allow either heuristic or systematic processes to predominate. Both studies showed participants were more likely to form their attitudes in response to the persuasion from in-group member, which had positive heuristic cues, with weak arguments under a restricted condition than under an unrestricted condition. This provides evidence that the HSM can explain the attitude change process under multiple-source-and-direction persuasion.
Key words
multiple-source-and-direction persuasion, HSM, cognitive resource