早期公開 英文要約

Title
The relationship between mind-wandering or awareness and creativity
Author
Akina YAMAOKA (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
Shintaro YUKAWA (Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
Summary
Although mind-wandering and awareness are contrary concepts, both are positively correlated with creative problem solving. To understand this contradiction, we examined how mind-wandering and awareness are related to the three aspects of creativity: fluency, flexibility, and originality. We used psychological scales to measure mind-wandering and awareness, and the Unusual Uses Test to measure the three aspects of creativity. Data from 532 participants (300 male, 228 female, and 4 unknown; Mage=19.67, SD=1.44 years) were analyzed. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between mind-wandering and uniqueness scores of originality. An ANOVA analysis showed that participants in the medium mind-wandering group scored higher than those in the low mind-wandering group. In contrast, mind-wandering and evaluative scores of originality showed a U-shaped relationship, and participants in the medium mind-wandering group scored lower than those in the low mind-wandering group.
Key words
mind-wandering, awareness, creativity, Unusual Uses Test, originality
Title
Strategies for the inference of mental states: Projection and stereotyping
Author
Tatsunori ISHII (Faculty of Applied Psychology, Tokyo Seitoku University)
Masanori TAKEZAWA (Graduate School of Letters, Hokkaido University / Center for Experimental Research in Social Sciences, Hokkaido University)
Summary
It has been argued that people selectively use two strategies, projection and stereotyping, to infer the mental state of others. Through a series of studies, Ames (2004) confirmed the hypothesis that people project their own mental state to the other when the target person is perceived to be similar to oneself, while the stereotype of a group or category to which the target person belongs is used for mental state inferences when the target is perceived to be dissimilar. Four replication studies of Ames (2004), however, consistently provided counterevidence against this hypothesis. Participants employed projection consistently, regardless of the perceived similarity to the target person. This result suggests that further examination of conditions that trigger different mental state inference strategies is needed.
Key words
mental state inference, projection, stereotyping