Vol.2,No.2 March,1987

Title
Robots and psychology : On the three sections(<Special issue>Man & robot)
Author
Masahiro MORI (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Summary
This paper deals with the proposals and the author's opinions on three sections of Robotics which are related with psychology. These three sections are: 1. Body Figure 2. Behavior of Grouping Robots 3. Robotization and Humanization The body figure is normally considered as having a human. However, the author describes on an anticipation of a Robot with the body figure. The author had produced seven grouping robots by experiment. It is described an anticipation of reasons of animal grouping, since it had been observed that the behavior of these seven robots had been quite similar with animal grouping. It is described how to overcame inconsistency and confrontation for the robotization and the humanization which are the theme on the mankind for the future.
Key words
robots, body figure, pain, group, humanity
Title
Robots and tradition in Japan(<Special issue>Man & robot)
Author
Kuniko MIYANAGA (International Christian University)
Summary
It has been reported that 70-90% of robots (depending on how "robot" is defined) in the world are concentrated in Japan. This situation has been discussed much from the viewpoint of the employment pattern particular to Japan, a combination of the life-ling employment system and the seniority system. Taking this viewpoint fully into consideration, this appear will add a cultural perspective to the understanding of the popularity of robots in Japan. It analyzes that both Japanese people and robots are "ritual" beings and that the Japanese moral training is sequential. This particular conditioning of people in Japan creates relationships between the whole and the parts and also between body and mind, different from those which Western societies have developed and have been experiencing. In the Japanese mind, robots have been accepted as morally primitive but not evil. In the image particularly of Japanese children, robots become super men when they gain the beauty of the human heart.
Key words
post-industrial society, indigenous culture, ritual man, imagery, morality
Title
Information system in the aging society : Some problems in "Intelligent city"(<Special issue>Man & robot)
Author
Yoshinobu KODAMA (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Summary
Some problems in prospect of the developed information system are discussed. A new word, "intelligent building" or "intelligent city" in Japanese is proposed concerning the hardware side. Information technology has a growing impact on our everyday living environment. It has become necessary to rethink the question of just what represents a suitable life in aging society. Analytical results of social survey, four attitude patterns of elders, and supporting system are discussed.
Key words
information system, intelligent city, aging society, supporting system
Title
Determinants of residential consumers' water conservation in urban drought
Author
Yukio HIROSE (Nagoya University)
Takashi KITADA (Kyoto University)
Summary
In the urban drought assumed to be "the tragedy of the commons" situation, residential consumers must decide whether or not to take water conservation behaviors in compliance with the community conservation programs. Survey 1 consisting of 78 consumers with no drought experience was conducted to examine the relationship between consumers' beliefs toward water use and their behaviors. A factor analysis of beliefs revealed three factors; benefit-cost evaluation of water use, perceived effectiveness of water conservation, awareness of social cost of water waste. A regression analysis showed the benefit-cost evaluation factor to be only correlated with water conservation. Survey 2 consisting of 357 consumers with a drought experience, was conducted to clarified the determinants of water conservation at different sequential stages; normal water supply, recommendation of voluntary conservation, rationing of water supply. Analysis of regressions for the different stages revealed difference in regression equations. Especially the benefit-cost evaluations of conveniency, cost effectiveness, and cleanness were correlated with water conservation at the first, second, third stages, respectively. These findings indicate the rank hierarchy of the benefit-cost evaluations of water use.
Key words
tragedy of commons, urban drought, water conservation, decision making, benefit-cost analysis
Title
A semiological analysis on conducts meaning the aidagara of lover-sweetheart relation
Author
Ichiro YAMANE (University of Tsukuba)
Summary
The meaning of interpersonal behavior as an expression of interpersonal relation and its communicability was researched from the semiological viewpoint. Limiting the meaning level of interpersonal conducts to the degree of prescription of "aidagara (a category of relation)" of koibito (lover-sweetheart), undergraduate responded to questionaries which expored the degree of indication (markedness) of the aidagara in the Japanese society and the degree of personal connotation and inference of the markedness of 50 conducts observed between a male female. It was confirmed that necessary requiremental conducts and sufficient conditional ones of the aidagara of koibito were different and that body touching and sexal items had high degrees of markedness. Communicability (agreement between connotation by one sex and inference by the other) was generally high, but connotation of the female's vabal and male's nonvabal conducts tended to be overestimated by opposite sex. Semiological implication of the results were discussed and a need for the orientation to semanutical analysis of conducts was asserted.
Key words
semiology, interpersonal relations, interpersonal communication, interpersonal attraction, dating behavior
Title
The analysis of the resolution process in various interpersonal conflict situations (1) : The response pattern to the conflict situations and its categolization
Author
Kinuko YOSHINO (Osaka Branch of Training Institute for Correctional Officials, Ministry of Justice )
Summary
The purpose of this study is to analyze the process of conflict resolution in various daily-life situations. Fifteen conflict situations between subjects and their neighbours, friends and spouses were selected as the topics. The subjects were housewives who lived in Amami(rural) and Tokyo(urban) areas. They were asked how they felt and dealt with the conflict situations, that is, the degree of importance to the situations, emotional involvement to the situations, the will to bring the events to public notice, the principle for resolving the conflict and the definite plan to solve the conflict. The response patterns to the fifteen conflict situations are divided into three types - hard-line, flexible and leave-alone types. These three types are not on the same level. Former two types are relatively similar in contrast to the later one in terms of the degree of commitment to the situations. These results are also supported by the analysis of the Hayashi's Theory of Quantification. However, some individual differences are found in the process of resolution such as an usual and unusual resolving response pattern.
Key words
interpersonal conflict, types of conflict resolution
Title
Construction and validation of a feminism scale
Author
Atsuko SUZUKI (Keio University)
Summary
The present paper aims 1) to construct an objective feminism scale which measures the level of awareness of sexual equality and the independence of Japanese women and 2) to test the reliability and validity of this scale. A survey was conducted of 174 women between the ages of 20 and 59. The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts: 1) a feminism scale and 2) demographic and psychographic variables. The responses to the scale were statistically analyzed using GP analysis, factor analysis and coefficient reliability. The results show that the scale is reliable as a measurement of feminist awareness as I have defined it. The subjects were (1) divided into three groups (high, medium, low) on their level of awareness and (2) classified into groups for each variable. The fact that significant quantitative differences were found among the 3 groups based on various demographic and psychographic characteristics (e.g. age, education, marital status, work/plans and role consciousness) indicates the validity of the scale.
Key words
feminism scale, reliability and validity, demographic variables, psychographic variables
Title
An empirical study of an effect of normative expectations on systems learning by recruits in a business organization
Author
Toshizumi OHTA (Toyohashi University of Technology)
Summary
This report is concerned with a systems learning by recruits consisting of college graduates in a Japanese business organization which will be discussed from a socialization perspective. In order to describe socialization in an organization, a management control systems model is developed on the basis of a behavioral view of organizations. Two hundred and seventy college recruits in a Japanese business organization were asked to respond to two questionnaires based on the proposed model at different times within the first year of socialization. Among the findings, normative expectations developed by a recruit concerning his job are identified as an important determinant to a level of uncertainty reduction felt by the recruit. In conclusion, concerning the uncertainty of a recruit, the uncertainty felt by the recruit should be elaborated in order to describe a process of learning inquiry by recruits.
Key words
socialization, management control system, systems learning, normative expectation, job image