Vol.5,No.2 March,1990

Title
PERSPECTIVES IN HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY(<Special issues>Social psychology of health)
Author
Hiroshi MOTOAKI (Waseda University)
Summary
Owing to its recent developments in the United States and Japan, health psychology now encompasses everyday behavior and life styles of people related to health enhancement and disease prevention, the role of which exceeds those played by clinical and other traditional areas of psychology. Since late 1940s, psychosocial approaches to somatic health and diseases are becoming greater focusses of attention among increasing numbers of psychologists, which are accompanied by a development of psychosocial models of somatic diseases replacing traditional biomedical models. Under these circumstances, the Japanese Association of Health Psychology was established in January, 1988, to organize to foster comprehensive studies and practical applications of health psychology as a profession, as well as basic training and education of health psychologists. Today, in health psychology, major somatic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc.) are considered as consequences of disturbed well-being within bio-psycho-socio-cultural systems of people, which are mediated primarily by psychosocial factors, such as disease-prone (Type A) behavior patterns, life styles and personality, inappropriate ways of coping with everyday stresses, as well as health care/social support net work systems and community behavioral interventions.
Key words
health enhancement, disease prevention, psychosocial factors, health care systems, community behavioral interventions
Title
AIDS and the Japanese society : A report from the 30th Annual Meeting(<Special issues>Social psychology of health)
Author
Hirotada HIROSE (Tokyo Woman's Christian University)
Summary
AIDS presents a fundamental challenge to the Japanese society as well as any other societies in the world. The 30th Annual Meeting of The Japanese Society of Social Psychology had a plenary session on "AIDS and Current Japanese Society". The aim of the report is to set ourselves an assignment of "what should we do about AIDS problems" through describing the three and a half hours presentations and discussions. We had five paper givers who were a clinical doctor of AIDS ward, a representative of a hemophilia support group, a government's public health official, a journalist and a social psychologist. We also had two discussants who were a AIDS researcher and a social psychologist. Indeed, the cross-disciplinary symposium on AIDS is the first attempt in the field of social psychology of Japan, but it could offer a good opportunity to arouse our concern to this problem.
Key words
AIDS, HIV, AIDS panic, social discrimination and prejudice, hemophilia, homosexuals, risk perception
Title
Mental health : From psychoanalysis of Freud to Morita therapy : From sexual energy to spiritual energy(<Special issues>Social psychology of health)
Author
Akira TSUJIMURA (University of Tokyo)
Summary
The modern psychotherapy had been developed initially by Freud's psychoanalysis. Freud's theory and practices, however, have been so strongly dominated by mechanism of sexual energy that several reactions to it have been developed thereafter. Several psychotherapists reached the conclusion that even mentally deranged persons should be treated as human-beings or real existences. This article tried to trace this tendency from Binswanger's Dasein-analysis, Sullivan's new Freudism. Frankl's existence-analysis and finally to Japanese Morita therapy. Final reaching point on the side of Western world may be Frankl's existence analysis which is very persuasive because of his experience in Auschwitz concentration camp, and he fries to use spiritual energy, in stead of sexual energy in his therapy. It is astonishing that the same conclusion and practices had been developed by Japanese Morita therapy which utilizes Zen's doctrine.
Key words
psycho-analysis, Dasein-analysis, existence-analysis, Morita-therapy, spiritual unconsciousness
Title
An examination of transformational processes of interpersonal relations
Author
Mitsuhiro URA (Toyama women's college)
Summary
Individuals elicit various outcomes from interpersonal relations between them and their partners. Some of the outcomes are perceived as rewards for them, but others are perceived as costs for them. At the same time, they perceive certain causes of the outcome, and infer certain interpersonal tendencies of their partners. These processes determine their transformational tendencies on the interpersonal relations. And as a result of combining their and their partner's transformational tendencies, the inter-personal relations are changed. In this article, through examining researches of interpersonal emotions and attribution-emotion research, a conceptual model of the transformational process of interpersonal relations was presented, and validity of the model was examined by means of hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The results generally supported validity of the model, but necessity of further examination on some aspects of the model was suggested. The implications of this study for future researches of interpersonal relation are dissussed.
Key words
interpersonal relations, outcomes, interpersonal emotions, interpersonal tendencies, transformation of interpersonal relation, causal attribution
Title
Inter-cultural innovation experiment I : The effect of a Japanese minority source upon the process of perceptual conversion among French subjects and the influence of social categorization
Author
Masaaki ORII (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales:KEIO University)
Bernard PERSONNAZ (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales:C.N.R.S.)
Summary
An experiment in inter-cultural innovation was administered to 60 French subjects. Slide-color-judgment task was given to 12 subject group comprising of 5 French subjects each, under the condition where a Japanese collaborator, introduced as a subject, was placed in each group to provide the answer "green" at the sight of a blue slide. The Japanese collaborator, based on his having a foreign nationality, being alone in totally French subject group and providing a deviant answer, is defined as an outgroup minority in the subject group, and following hypotheses were tested and found valid: 1) The influence of the outgroup minority upon the group is caused only during his absence. 2) A conversion phenomenon in the perception level of cognition occurs when the deviant response of the outgroup minority is socially categorized as a minority response in Japan. 3) Influence at the manifest level occur when there is no social categorization process.
Key words
outgroup minority, influence, social categorization, inter-cultural innovation, conversion phenomenon
Title
Effects of seating arrangement on attitude change and impression formation
Author
Takaya KOUYAMA (Hiroshima University)
Takehiro FUJIHARA (Hiroshima University)
Shinji ISHII (Hiroshima University)
Summary
The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of seating arrangements between a sender and a receiver of a persuasive communication on attitude change and impression formation. One hundred twenty subjects, 60 males and 60 females, participated in this study as the receivers. Each subject was randomly assigned to one condition of a three (seating arrangement: `across', `diagonal', or `adjacent') × two (sender sex: male or female) × two (receiver sex: male or female) between ANOVA design. The results indicated that the subjects both in the `diagonal' and the `across' arrangements changed their attitudes more the subjects in the `adjacent' arrangement. But the seating arrangements had no effects on the impression formations. To examine effects of the seating arrangements on attitude changes, possible effects due to the lack of eye contacts during persuasion period were discussed.
Key words
attitude change, impression formation, seating arrangement, nonverbal communication
Title
A study of multiple role involvement : Effects of type of role involvement, attainment, and masculinity/femininity
Author
Itsuko DOHI (Kansai Gakuin University)
Toshimune HIROSAWA (Kansai Jogakuin Junior College)
Kunio TANAKA (Kansai Gakuin University)
Summary
Women's occupancy of the social roles of wife, mother, and worker, and the attainment from their role performance were examined in relation to life satisfaction and role overload. The study also examined the effect of sex-role personality, androgyny, which were assumed to have effects to the number of role occupancy or attainment. Subjects were 292 Japanese women aged twenties to forties, who were from the list of graduates. Women who occupied 3 roles (wife, mother, worker) or 2 roles (wife, mother) got higher life satisfaction than women who occupied 1 role (worker). But, role overload of women who occupied 3 roles were higher than that of women who occupied 2 roles (wife, mother). The effect of ageclass was significant concerning role overload; forties got lower role overload than twenties or thirties. Role attainment was important to get higher life satisfaction. Masculinity urged to occupy many roles, and femininity to get higher wife's and mother's role attainment.
Key words
multiple roles, life satisfaction, role overload, role attainment, masculinity/femininity