Vol.8,No.1 January,1993

Title
Unidimensional expression of female figures in mass media : The analysis of comics and gravures in magazines
Author
Hideki TOYODA (Research Division National Center for University Entrance Examination)
Mamoru FUKUTOMI (Department of Educational Psychology, Tokyo Gakugei University)
Tomoo NISHIDA (Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University)
Summary
The purpose of this study is to show the existence of sexual unidimension of female expressions in comics and gravures in the magazines. 1221 comics and 6861 gravures in 332 magazines published in June, 1989 were collected. The numbers of figures which can be categolized with sex and certain conditions of expression were counted. The frequency tables were analyzed by Quantification type III. The major findings were: (1) most of the expression of female figures in magazines can be explained by an unidimensional scale, named Degree of Exposure. (2) The degree of female expression tends to be more unidimensional in gravures than in comics.
Key words
sexual dimension, comic, gravure, Quantification Type III,expression of figure
Title
The functions of "home" in occupational socialization process : Life histories of migrant workers from an Okinawan community
Author
Hironori ISHII (Tohoku University)
Summary
Since 1920's, many Okinawans have come to urban centers of mainland Japan in search of jobs. Analyzing the life histories of Okinawan migrant workers from the same village in socio-historical contexts, I examine the role of "home" in their occupational socialization processes. The "home" mainly means both their native community in Okinawa and the society of hometown fellows in urban area of Japanese mainland. Two major findings from the analysis of 46 personal life histories are: (1) rapid changes in the Okinawa-Japan relationship have led to diversification of their occupational socialization processes, (2) the society of hometown fellows has come to play psychological rather than utilitarian functions, as the members' life-worlds expanded and became diversified. Living in pluralistic social worlds, they long for reference groups which enable them to confirm their ethnic identity.
Key words
"home", occupational socialization, reference group, identity, life history
Title
A study on career stress among working women
Author
Atsuko KANAI (Nagoya University)
Summary
A model about unique stressors among working women was explored. Those stressors become salient when a working woman conceives an aspiration for business career in the organization. Therefore it was named career stressor. Female employees (N=188) working for private corporations were asked to respond the questionnaire consisting of measures on career stressor and general stressor in the organization, career motives, career formation support, and stress reactions. It was found that faced with the high level of career stressor, women with high career motives tend to feel more job dissatisfaction than the low motive group. In addition, the results indicated that the support for career failed to buffer the effect of work over-load on measures of strain: the more the work load, the more the strain regardless of the level of social support. Then, it was suggested that the company needs to work to decrease career stressor and work over-load to allow female workers to move ahead with their careers.
Key words
career stress model, career stressor, career motive, career formation support, moderating effect
Title
Prisoners dilemma network : A computer-simulation of strategies
Author
Nahoko HAYASHI (Hokkaido University)
Nobuhito JIN (Hokkaido University)
Toshio YAMAGISHI (Hokkaido University)
Summary
The main purpose of this study was to examine how the existence of multiple Prisoner's Dilemma relations among group members affects their choices in each PD relation. Twenty-eight computer simulated actors were used to simulate group members. Each simulated-actor had two kinds of strategies: (1) designation strategy (i.e., strategy to determine whom to choose as a game partner), and (2) behavior strategy (i.e., strategy to determine when to cooperate and when to defect). The simulation involved four designation strategies, and seven behavior strategies. Five of behavior strategies were variants of the tit-for tat strategy, said to be most effective in iterated 2-person PD games. Results of the simulation indicate that: (1) the designation strategy has a greater influence on the simulated-actor' total score than the behavior strategy; (2) effectiveness of the behavior strategy changes depending on the designation strategy adopted; (3) the relationship between disignation and behavior strategies mentioned above depends on the nature of the pay-off matrix used in each game played along the PD network.
Key words
Prisoners Dilemma (PD), network, simulation, strategy, tit-for-tat
Title
A study on the interpersonal behaviors of lonely university students : The relationship between the self-reported loneliness and social skill deficits
Author
Atsushi AIKAWA (Faculty of Education, Miyazaki University)
Shoji SATO (Faculty of Education, Miyazaki University)
Yoko SATO (Faculty of Education, Miyazaki University)
Iwao TAKAYAMA (Faculty of Education, Miyazaki University)
Summary
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the degree of self-reported loneliness and the conversational skills observed in the interaction between strangers. The subjects were 48 university students who obtained high, medium, or low scores on the Japanese version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Each of these three groups included 8 males and 8 females students. The interpersonal interactions between the subjects and the confederate of the same sex were recorded by video cameras. These records were analyzed quantitatively by the raters who were blind to the subject's state of loneliness. Other raters made the qualitative analysis of the subject's conversational skills. The subjects also rated themselves and the confederate during the conversation. The results revealed some unique characteristics of highly lonely students in terms of quality but not in terms of quantity. The highly lonely students tended to lack the social skills indispensable to establish intimate interpersonal relationships. They also tended to negatively rate both themselves and the other party following interpersonal interactions.
Key words
loneliness, social skills, interpersonal behaviors, UCLA Loneliness Scale, university students
Title
Demographic determinants of gender-Identity : A study using within-individual correlations
Author
Eiko ISHIDA (Bunkyo Women's College)
Summary
Four-hundred men and women of various ages and various stages of life judged 36 concrete behaviors and attributes in terms of how well they apply to their own ideal and real self-images. They also evaluated the gender conventionality of the same set of attributes. Within-subject correlation coefficients were calculated between the self-image responses and gender responses for each subject and were used as indices of four types of sex self-identities: ideal male identity, ideal female identity, real male identity, and real female identity. Construct and discriminant validity of these new individual difference scores were confirmed through a comparison of these scores between career women and housewives without jobs. Differing effects of age, occupational status, marital and familial statuses on these four types of sex self-identities were ascertained, giving support to the conceptual discrimination between the ideal gender identities and the real sex self-identities. Evidences are discussed to clarify the advantages of the present indices over the previous measurements of gender identity, such as B.S.R.I. or P.A.Q..
Key words
gender, cognitive correlation, sex self-identity, self-image, ideal-image